Here, Today We would like to share previous IV B.Tech(EEE) I Semester (SVEC-16) Mid-II Examination February 2021 Previous Question Papers. These question papers are just for reference purposes.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND
UNIT-III: UNIT COMMITMENT (07 Periods)
Unit commitment Vs Economic dispatch. Constraints in unit commitment – start-up and shut-down costs, uptime and downtime. Unit commitment solution methods – priority list method, dynamic Programming method (maximum of three plants for three operating hours only).
UNIT-IV: REACTIVE POWER AND VOLTAGE CONTROL
Introduction, reactive power and voltage control in transmission lines – Line compensation, Load compensation and Static compensation. Voltage control methods – Excitation systems – AC, DC and Static types. Tap-changing transformers. Components and block diagram representation of IEEE type-1 excitation system, AVR model.
UNIT-V: LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL IN POWER SYSTEM
Load frequency control of single area system: Necessity of keeping the frequency constant, LFC Model – speed governor, turbine – reheat and non-reheat, generator-load model. steady-state response – uncontrolled and controlled case, dynamic response. Load frequency control and economic dispatch control. Load frequency control of two area systems: Block diagram representation, uncontrolled and controlled case, tie-line bias control. State-space representation and optimal controller.
UNIT-III: FUNDAMENTALS FOR PROGRAMMING
Development Environment, C Programming Language, Assembly Language, Programming and Debugging, Sample programs- Light LEDs in C, Read input from a switch; Automatic Control-Flashing light by delay, use of subroutines, using Timer A; Header files and issues, Functions, Interrupts and Low power modes.
UNIT-IV: TIMERS, MIXED SIGNAL SYSTEMS AND COMMUNICATION (09 periods)
Timers – Watchdog Timer, RTC, Measurement in capture mode; Mixed-Signal Systems- Comparator A, ADC10 Architecture & operation, ADC12, Sigma-Delta ADC Architecture & operation, DAC; Communication- Communication Peripherals in MSP430, SPI, Inter-integrated Circuit Bus, Asynchronous communication
with the USCI_A.
UNIT-V: HARDWARE-SOFTWARE CO-DESIGN AND INTERNET
OF THINGS (09 periods)
CO-Design Issues: Co-design Models, Architectures, Languages, a Generic Co-design Methodology.
IoT: Introduction, Origins, Drivers and Applications, IoT Communication Models – Device to Device, Device to Cloud, Device to Gateway, Back end Data Sharing Model; IPV6 and IOTs’, IOT Issues, Security Issues-challenges; Privacy Considerations, Interoperability/Standards.
SWITCHGEAR AND PROTECTION
UNIT-III: PROTECTION OF GENERATORS AND TRANSFORMERS (08 periods)
Protection of generators: Differential protection, restricted earth fault protection and inter-turn fault protection, rotor fault protection, calculation of percentage winding unprotected. Transformer protection: Differential protection, percentage differential protection, design of CT’s ratio. Protection against internal faults – Buchholtz relay.
UNIT-IV: PROTECTION OF FEEDERS AND TRANSMISSION
LINES (10 periods)
Protection of transmission lines: Three-zone distance protection using distance relays, carrier current protection using overcurrent relays. Protection of feeders: Protection of radial and ring main feeders using overcurrent relays. Protection of bus bars. Protection against Over Voltages: Causes of overvoltages in power systems, protection against lightning overvoltages – non-linear (valve type) and metal oxide (zinc-oxide) surge arresters, surge absorbers. Insulation coordination, basic impulse insulation level (BIIL).
UNIT-V: NEUTRAL GROUNDING (07 periods)
Grounded and ungrounded systems. Effects of ungrounded neutral on system performance. Methods of neutral grounding -solid, resistance, reactance, arc suppression coil (Peterson coil), grounding practices.
ENERGY CONSERVATION AND
UNIT-III: ENERGY EFFICIENT MOTORS AND LIGHTING
Energy-efficient motors – factors affecting efficiency, loss distribution, constructional details, characteristics, variable speed, variable duty cycle systems, motor energy audit.
Lighting: Good lighting system design and practice, lighting control, lighting energy audit.
UNIT-IV: ENERGY INSTRUMENTS AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (08 periods)
Energy Instruments- watt meter, data loggers, thermocouples, pyrometers, lux meters, tongue testers. PLCs and applications. Energy Economic Analysis – The time value of money concept. Cash flow models, payback analysis, depreciation, taxes and tax credit – numerical problems.
UNIT-V: DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT (10 periods)
Introduction to DSM, the concept of DSM, benefits of DSM, different techniques of DSM – time of day pricing, multi-utility power exchange model, and time of day models for planning. Load management, load priority technique, peak clipping, peak shifting, valley filling, strategic conservation, energy-efficient equipment. Management and organization of energy conservation awareness programs.
FLEXIBLE AC TRANSMISSION
UNIT-III: STATIC SHUNT COMPENSATION (11 Periods)
Operating characteristics and control schemes of static VAR generators – variable impedance type: TCR, TSR, TSC, Switching converter type – STATCOM; Hybrid VAR generators. Applications of static shunt compensators – Voltage regulation, improvement in transient stability, prevention of voltage instability, power oscillation damping. Comparison of static shunt compensators.
UNIT-IV: STATIC SERIES COMPENSATION (08 Periods)
Operating characteristics and control schemes of static VAR generators – variable impedance type: GCSC, TSSC, TCSC, Switching converter type: SSSC. Applications of static series compensators – improvement in transient stability, power oscillation damping. Comparison of static series compensators.
UNIT-V: STATIC PHASE ANGLE REGULATORS AND COMBINED
COMPENSATORS (07 Periods)
Power flow control by phase angle regulators – operation and
control of TCPAR, objectives of TCPAR: improvement of transient stability, power oscillation damping. Principle of UPFC – comparison of UPFC to series compensators and phase angle regulators, control schemes of UPFC, operating principle and characteristics of IPFC.
POWER SYSTEM AUTOMATION
UNIT-III: SUBSTATION AUTOMATION (09 periods)
Substation automation, conventional automation, New smart devices for substation automation, new integrated digital substation, technical issues, new digital simulation. Substation automation architectures, Substation automation applications functions, Benefits of data warehousing.
UNIT-IV: DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION (08 periods)
Introduction to Distribution automation – Customer, Feeder and substation automation, Subsystems in a distribution control centre, Distributed Management System(DMS) framework integration with subsystems, Advanced real-time DMS applications, advanced analytical DMS applications, DMS coordination with
UNIT-V: POWER SYSTEM RESTRUCTURING (10 periods)
Deregulation- the need for deregulation, Advantages of deregulation in power system; Restructuring Models- Pool Co Model, Bilateral Model, Hybrid Model; Independent system operator (ISO)- Role of ISO; Power exchange, Market operations, Market power, Standard cost, Transmission pricing, Congestion pricing – management of congestion.
POWER SYSTEM RELIABILITY
UNIT-III: MARKOV MODELLING & FREQUENCY AND DURATION TECHNIQUES (10 periods)
Markov chain – the concept of stochastic transitional probability matrix (STPM), evaluation of limiting state probabilities. Markov processes – time-dependent probability evaluation – evaluation
of limiting state probabilities using STPM – one, two-component repairable models. Frequency and duration concept – evaluation of the frequency of encountering state for one, two-component repairable models – evaluation of cumulative probability and cumulative frequency of encountering of merged states.
UNIT-IV: GENERATION SYSTEM RELIABILITY ANALYSIS
Generation system reliability analysis – reliability model of a generation system – recursive relation for unit addition and removal. Load modelling – merging of generation load model – evaluation of transition rates for merged state model – cumulative probability, the cumulative frequency of failure evaluation – LOLP, LOLE, LOEE.
UNIT-V: DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RELIABILITY ANALYSIS
Distribution system reliability analysis – radial networks – evaluation of basic reliability indices, performance indices – customer-oriented, load and energy-oriented indices and application to radial systems – effect of lateral distributor protection, disconnects and protection failure.
ANALYSIS OF POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS
UNIT-III: ANALYSIS OF MULTIPULSE CONVERTERS
Operation of 3-, 6-, and 12- pulse converters. Performance analysis of 3-, 6-, and 12- pulse converters – Low Order Harmonics (LOH), Total Harmonic Distortion(THD), Power Factor, Ripple Factor, Form Factor, Distortion Factor.
UNIT-IV: SWITCHING REGULATORS (08 periods)
Design and analysis of buck, boost, buck-boost and Cuk converters. Resonant Converters-Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) and Zero Current Switching (ZCS) converters.
UNIT-V: ADVANCED PWM TECHNIQUES (08 periods)
Modified Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation, Phase Displacement Control, Trapezoidal Modulation Technique, Staircase Modulation, Stepped Modulation, Harmonic Injection Modulation, Delta Modulation. Selective Harmonics Elimination (SHE) Technique.
UNIT-III: FUNDAMENTALS OF HARMONICS (10 periods)
Harmonic distortion, voltage versus current distortion, harmonics versus transients, power system quantities under non-sinusoidal conditions, harmonic indices. Harmonic sources from commercial and industrial loads. Effects of harmonic distortion. Applied harmonics – harmonic distortion evaluation, principles of controlling harmonics, devices for controlling harmonic distortion. Harmonic filter design and standards on harmonics.
UNIT-IV: POWER QUALITY MONITORING (09 periods)
Power quality benchmarking, monitoring considerations, choosing monitoring locations, permanent power quality monitoring equipment, historical perspective of power quality measuring instruments. Power quality measurement equipment-types of instruments, assessment of power quality measurement data, power quality monitoring standards.
UNIT-V: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND GRID INTERCONNECTION (08 periods)
Distributed generation -connection requirements and impacts on the network. Interaction and optimal location of DG-Eigen analysis and voltage interaction. Power quality in DG-Mitigation of voltage dip during motor starting, harmonic effects with DG, voltage flicker and fluctuation. Islanding issues, distribution line compensation-heavy Load and Light load condition, real generation, protection issues for distributed generation, technologies for distributed generation, power quality impact from different DG types.
SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY
UNIT-III: SMART METERS AND ADVANCED METERING INFRASTRUCTURE (09 periods)
Smart electricity meters – evolution, need for a smart meter, benefits, differences between conventional and smart meter, the hardware used; Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) – benefits, drivers, system model, security requirements, AMI Vs AMR; Communication infrastructure and protocols for smart metering –
Home area network (HAN), Neighbourhood area network (NAN)- protocols and standards for communication; Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) – functions, Smart meter issues.
UNIT-IV: POWER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN SMART GRID
Introduction to power quality, Electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC) in smart grid, Grid-connected renewable energy sources- equipment required, power quality conditioner; Web-based power quality monitoring – hardware and software. Power quality audit.
UNIT-V: HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR SMART GRID
APPLICATIONS (10 periods)
Introduction, communication channels – wired and wireless, wired Vs wireless; Networks used in communication – LAN, WAN, HAN, FAN, NAN, IAN, BAN; Communication technologies – Internet protocol, introduction to cloud computing and properties.
SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES
UNIT-III: CLASSICAL AND FUZZY SETS (09 periods)
Introduction to fuzzy logic. Classical sets – operations, properties. Fuzzy sets – operations, properties. Crisp relations – cardinality, operations, properties, cartesian product, composition. Fuzzy relations – cardinality, operations, properties, fuzzy cartesian product, composition. Linguistic hedges, membership
functions – features, methods of membership value assignments- intuition, inference, rank-ordering, neural networks, inductive reasoning.
UNIT-IV: FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEMS (08 periods)
Defuzzification – Lambda-cuts for fuzzy sets and fuzzy relations. Defuzzification methods – max membership principle, weighted average, centroid, the centre of sums. Fuzzy rule base – formation of rules, decomposition of rules, aggregation of rules – design procedure. Speed control of DC motor – need of fuzzy logic, selection of membership functions, design of rule base for speed control.
UNIT-V: GENETIC ALGORITHM (08 periods)
Introduction to evolutionary computing – GA, the biological background of GA. Terminologies and operators of GA – search space, individuals, genes, fitness function, population, encoding – binary encoding, breading. Selection -roulette wheel, rank, tournament. Crossover – single point and two-point crossovers. Mutation – flipping, interchanging and reversing. Probabilities of cross over and mutation. Replacement – random, weak parent
replacement. Termination criteria, flow chart, advantages, limitations and applications. Application of genetic algorithm for optimal allocation of capacitors in the distribution system.
BANKING AND INSURANCE
UNIT-III: BUSINESS MODELS AND ELECTRONIC PAYMENT
SYSTEM (09 Periods)
Features, types of e-payment system, e-cash, NEFT, RTGS, Credit cards, Electronic purses and Debit cards. Business modelsB2B, B2C, C2C, and B2G.
UNIT-IV: INTRODUCTION TO RISK AND INSURANCE
Concept of risk, risk Vs uncertainty. Insurance definition, Insurance as risk mitigation mechanism, elements of insurance.
UNIT-V: INSURANCE OVERVIEW (09 periods)
Principles of insurance, insurance types, LIC & GIC insurance contract- nature, elements, functions, IRDA, Insurance Players in India.
BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AND CAREER SKILLS
UNIT-III: WRITING BUSINESS DOCUMENTS (09 Periods)
Introduction: Importance of Written Business Communication, Types of Business Messages – Five Main Stages of Writing Business Messages – Business Letter Writing – Effective Business Correspondence – Common Components of Business Letters – Strategies for Writing the Body of a Letter.
UNIT-IV: CAREERS AND RESUMES (09 Periods)
Introduction – Career Building – Business Presentations and Speeches – Resume Formats – Traditional, Electronic and Video Resumes – Sending Resumes – Follow-up Letters – Online Recruitment Process.
UNIT-V: INTERVIEWS (09 Periods)
Introduction – Fundamental Principles of Interviewing – General Preparation for an Interview – Success in an Interview – Types of Interviewing Questions – Important Non-verbal Aspects – Types of Interviews – Styles of Interviewing.
UNIT-III: SELF-MOTIVATION AND SELF-MANAGEMENT
Show Initiative – Be Responsible Self-Management; Efficient Work Habits – Stress Management – Employers Want People Who can Think – Thinking Strategies. Case study: 3
UNIT-IV: GETTING ALONG WITH THE SUPERVISOR
Know your Supervisor – Communicating with Your Supervisor – Special Communications With Your Supervisor – What Should You Expect of Your Supervisor? – What Your Supervisor Expects of You – Moving Ahead Getting Along with Your Supervisor. Case study: 4
UNIT-V: WORKPLACE SUCCESS (09 Periods)
First Day on the Job – Keeping Your Job – Planning Your Career – Moving ahead. Case study: 5
UNIT-III: TECHNOLOGIES FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT
Food and agro-based technologies, Tissue culture, Nursery, Building and construction technologies, Cultivation and
processing of economic plants, Cottage and social industries.
UNIT-IV: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (09 Periods)
Water conservation, Rainwater Harvesting, Drinking water, Environment and Sanitation, Biofertilizers, Medical and aromatic plants, Employment generating technologies–Apiculture,
Pisciculture and Aquaculture.
UNIT-V: IT IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT (09 Periods)
Role of information technology (IT) in rural areas, Impact of IT in rural development, Need and necessity of technology, Corporate social responsibilities, Private sector participation(Activities in different spheres: Employment, Education, Health, Agriculture and service sectors) and Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana
(SAGY), Village adoption schemes.
Click to Download All Mid-II Question Papers in pdf file
We wish you all the best for your exams.